Although the entire signaling pathways mediating etoposide-induced apoptosis are not clear, double-stranded and single-stranded DNA breaks induced by etoposide have been shown to activate the p53 activity by phosphorylation, resulting in an up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. The translocation of Bax to the mitochondria induces the MPT, the event that releases cytochrome c and culminates in the death of the cells. Etoposide also blocks the cell cycle in S-phase and G2-phase; induces apoptosis in normal and tumor cell lines; inhibits synthesis of the oncoprotein Mdm2 and induces apoptosis in tumor lines that overexpress Mdm2.
Physical State: Etoposide is provided in DMSO. The final reagent concentration is 10 mM.