DNA Damage

DNA damage caused by normal metabolic activities and environmental factors triggers the DNA damage response system to activate a DNA repair pathway. In the case of irreparable damage, apoptosis is induced. Deviations to normal DNA structure such as DNA breaks, DNA adducts or crosslinking, requires a collection of DNA processes for DNA repair.  More than 100 genes are required for DNA repair.

Trevigen provides a selection of qualified products for DNA damage detection and the study of DNA repair. These include standard comet assay kits, a high-throughput comet assay called CometChip® and comet analysis software to measure DNA damage in single cells. Kits to measure in vitro enzymatic activity for PARP 1, PARG and Tankyrase 1 are designed to screen compound libraries and provide IC50 information. Validated PARP and gamma-H2AX ELISA assays are available along with a host of antibodies, DNA repair enzymes, and in vivo pharmacodynamic assays.

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  • Comet Assay

    Comet Assay (38)

    The single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) or comet assay is a sensitive and rapid technique for quantifying DNA damage and repair from in vivo and in vitro samples of eukaryotic and plant cells. The resulting image that is obtained resembles a "comet" with a distinct head and tail. The head is composed of intact DNA, while the tail consists of single-strand or double-strand DNA breaks. The extent of DNA liberated from the head of the comet is directly proportional to the amount of DNA damage. This is the only technique that directly measures DNA damage in individual cells and thus has rapidly gained importance in the fields of genetic toxicology and human biomonitoring.

    Trevigen offers a complete system for the standard comet assay (CometAssay®) providing kits and reagents including our specially treated CometSlides™ and Control Cells. The FLARE™ (Fragment Length Analysis using Repair Enzymes) Assay provides the ability to probe for oxidative DNA damage in conjunction with CometAssay® reagents. In addition to the standard comet assay, Trevigen’s exclusive 96-Well CometChip® System provides a high-throughput platform to simultaneously treat and measure DNA damage on a single slide using an array of non-overlapping cells. Trevigen’s Analysis Software and Electrophoresis System are designed to improve assay performance and work with both CometAssay®, FLARE™, and CometChip® products.

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  • gamma-H2AX Kit and Antibody

    gamma-H2AX Kit and Antibody (2)

    The visualization of DNA damage response proteins enables the indirect measurement of DNA damage. Cellular exposure to ionizing radiation or DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents results in DNA damage in the form of double-strands breaks (DSBs). The fast and abundant phosphorylation of H2AX at Ser 139 (gamma-H2AX) correlates well with each DSB making it a sensitive marker for the level of DNA damage and the subsequent DNA repair of the lesion. A gamma-H2AX kit and antibody allows the assessment of DNA damage and DNA repair for ELISA based assays, immunohistochemistry or flow cytometry. In the detection of genomic damage, gamma-H2AX is especially important in research involving cancer treatment and therapy, and environmental biomonitoring.

    Trevigen’s gamma-H2AX Pharmacodynamic assay is the first commercially available ELISA kit to quantify phosphorylated levels of gamma-H2AX in PBMCs, cultured cells and tissue biopsies. Also offered is the DNA damage detecting antibody for double-strand breaks, Anti-Phosphorylated Histone H2AX Affinity Purified Polyclonal.

    Contract Services are also offered for the gamma-H2AX Kit.

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    • PARP, PARG and Tankyrase

      PARP, PARG and Tankyrase (36)

      Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a family of related enzymes that catalyze the transfer of ADP-ribose onto target proteins. PAR synthesis and subsequent degradation by poly-(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG) are important roles in DNA repair. The discovery that certain tumors are defective in homologous recombination repair and depend on PARP-mediated DNA repair for survival suggests PARP and PARG as potential targets in cancer therapy. In addition, Tankyrase 1 (PARP 5a) plays an important role in telomere elongation. Screening tools for potential PARP, PARG and Tankyrase inhibitors are important for drug discovery.

      Trevigen offers kits including purified enzymes, antibodies and reagents to measure PARP 1, Tankyrase 1, PARG and PAR. These assays are well suited for the large-scale screening of compound libraries, IC50 determination of potential PARP inhibitors, and measurement of the in vivo activity in cell extracts or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In addition, monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for PARP 1 and PAR are available including biotinylated NAD+ for detection.

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    • DNA Repair Enzymes and Reaction Buffers

      DNA Repair Enzymes and Reaction Buffers (12)

      DNA base excision repair (BER) is initiated by DNA repair enzymes known as DNA glycosylases that cleave the glycosylic bond between the base and deoxyribose of damaged specific nucleotides. The phosphate backbone adjacent to the apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site is then cleaved by an AP endonuclease or glycosylase-associated AP lyase. These enzymes can be used in vitro to detect specific forms of DNA damage. Trevigen’s unique FLARE™ Assays characterize DNA damage in single cells using a variety of DNA repair enzymes in combination with the comet assay to recognize oxidative damage.

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    • Molecular Biology

      Molecular Biology (4)

      Trevigen’s Molecular Biology products were developed for use in our labs, and routinely used by our research and development group. 25X PBS is economical for routine use in ELISA, Immunocytochemistry, and Western Blots. The DNA electrophoresis accessory, Orange G loading dye, is ideal for PCR applications with a migration range of 10-20 nucleotides and does not require refrigeration. Three types of highly purified genomic DNA (10 mg/ml) are qualified for Northern, Southern, probe array, and dot blotting procedures with a fragment size range of 80–500 base pairs. Trevigen’s Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT) is highly purified and qualified for in situ DNA labeling.

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