Cell Stress and DNA Damage

Oxidative damage of DNA and macromolecules is a major contributing factor to cell stress. Cell stress and DNA damage has the potential for cancer causing mutations leading to programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the absence of DNA repair. Assays to measure the cellular stress response include Glutathione, Glutathione Reductase, Glutathione Peroxidase, Superoxide Dismutase and 8-oxo-dG. The comet assay also known as the single cell gel electrophoresis assay provides quantification of DNA damage in single cells. A high-throughput version of the comet assay (CometChip®) offers compound screening in multiple cell types. Trevigen’s Comet Analysis Software could be used with standard CometAssay® as well as high-throughput CometChip®. Assays to measure the cellular capacity for DNA repair and monitor important biomarkers (PARP, PARG, Tankyrase, and gamma-H2AX) are often used in drug screening. In the event that DNA damage is not repaired, tissue specific DNA fragmentation assays  such as TUNEL, may be employed to monitor apoptosis.

Trevigen provides kits and reagents to measure apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative damage. These assays include cell proliferation, cell death (TUNEL), single-cell DNA damage (comet assay), double-strand breaks (gamma-H2AX), PARP activity and oxidative biomarkers (8-oxo-dG, BPDE, GSH and SOD). Assays important in cancer research, genetic toxicology and drug discovery.

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  • Oxidative Damage

    Oxidative Damage (8)

    Cellular responses to oxidative stress are of interest to investigators of a wide variety of human diseases such as cancer, diabetes, atherosclerosis, stroke, Alzheimer’s, many auto-immune diseases, and aging. Oxidative stress occurs when the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase dramatically in the cell leading to oxidative damage.  The estimated frequency of oxidatively-induced DNA lesions is approximately 104 lesions per cell per day. The most abundant DNA lesion generated following exposure to hydroxyl radicals is 8-oxo-dG. Common pollutants such as cigarette smoke also trigger a metabolic response resulting in the formation of bulky DNA adducts (BPDE). Biomarkers frequently used to measure cellular defensive responses against oxidative stress include superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione (GSH).

    Trevigen offers products to enable investigators to monitor changes in 8-oxo-dG and BPDE levels: high-throughput ELISA kits for 8-oxo-dG and BPDE including the monoclonal antibodies for detection. Trevigen research kits employ well-established methods to assay the known biomarkers GSH and SOD.

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  • DNA Damage

    DNA Damage (92)

    DNA damage caused by normal metabolic activities and environmental factors triggers the DNA damage response system to activate a DNA repair pathway. In the case of irreparable damage, apoptosis is induced. Deviations to normal DNA structure such as DNA breaks, DNA adducts or crosslinking, requires a collection of DNA processes for DNA repair.  More than 100 genes are required for DNA repair.

    Trevigen provides a selection of qualified products for DNA damage detection and the study of DNA repair. These include standard comet assay kits, a high-throughput comet assay called CometChip® and comet analysis software to measure DNA damage in single cells. Kits to measure in vitro enzymatic activity for PARP 1, PARG and Tankyrase 1 are designed to screen compound libraries and provide IC50 information. Validated PARP and gamma-H2AX ELISA assays are available along with a host of antibodies, DNA repair enzymes, and in vivo pharmacodynamic assays.

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  • Apoptosis

    Apoptosis (76)

    Apoptosis is a mechanism of programmed cell death that is essential to normal cell turnover. Many diseases are attributable to deficient apoptosis where excessive or insufficient cell death occur. Prior to the occurence of characteristic changes in cell morphology that include cell rounding, plasma membrane blebbing and nuclear condensation, pro-apoptotic signaling pathways are triggered by cell stress. Activation of caspase proteases leading to mitochondrial alteration result in a well-orchestrated cascade of events offering a series of markers to identify various stages of apoptosis. Scientists can detect changes in mitochondrial potential associated with apoptosis with reagents such as DePsipher™; early membrane events with labeled Annexin V; DNA fragmentation with specialty TUNEL kits for fixed tissues and cells using microscopy, flow cytometry or microplate format; as well as identify specific key proteins with our line of antibodies.

    For over 20 years the research community has relied on Trevigen to supply the highest quality kits for apoptosis detection under its brand name TACS® (Trevigen Apoptotic Cell System) as well as antibodies and reagents used to investigate the apoptotic state of cells and assess cell viability and proliferation.

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